Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs when a person’s blood glucose is too high because there is not enough insulin. Instead, the body starts to burn fat for energy. Fat is broken down into acids, causing acid levels to build up in the blood. These acids appear in urine and blood as ketones. DKA is a serious condition that can lead to coma or death if it is not promptly treated.
Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes is a higher level of glucose in the blood than is normal. Glucose travels through the body in the blood. A hormone called insulin then helps glucose move from the blood to the cells. Once glucose is in the cells it can be used for energy. A problem making or using insulin means glucose cannot move into cells. Insulin also helps glucose to move into the liver for storage if there is too much to use. Without enough insulin, glucose will build up in the blood. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not make insulin. This will lead to the build up of glucose in the blood, also called hyperglycemia. At the same time, cells are not getting glucose they need to function well. Over a long period of time high blood glucose levels can also damage vital organs. The blood vessels, heart, kidneys, eyes, and nerves are most commonly affected organs. Type 1 diabetes is often found during childhood and young adulthood.
Type 2 Diabetes
Glucose is a type of sugar. It comes from food, and is also created in the liver. Glucose travels through the body in the blood. It moves from the blood to cells with the help of a hormone called insulin. Once glucose is in those cells, it can be used for energy. Insulin also helps glucose to move into the liver for storage if there is too much to use. Diabetes is a condition that makes it difficult for the body to use or store glucose. This causes a buildup of glucose in the blood. It also means the body is not getting enough energy. Type 2 diabetes is one type of diabetes. It is the most common type in adults. Medication, lifestyle changes, and monitoring can help control blood glucose levels.
Diabetes occurs when there is a higher level of glucose in the blood than is normal. Glucose comes from the breakdown of the food you eat. It travels through your body in the blood. A hormone called insulin then helps glucose move from your blood to your cells. Once glucose is in your cells, it can be used for energy. A problem making or using insulin means glucose cannot move into your cells. Instead, the glucose builds up in your blood. The build-up is called hyperglycemia. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs or is first recognized during pregnancy. The extra glucose can affect the mother and the baby.
Diabetic nephropathy is kidney damage that occurs with diabetes. It is the job of the kidneys to: Damage from diabetes can prevent the kidneys from working well. In some cases, this can lead to kidney failure.
Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage associated with diabetes. It can result in damage to any nerve in the body. The types of neuropathy include:
Diabetic Foot Ulcer
Ulcers are slow-healing wounds on the skin. Diabetic foot ulcers occur on the feet of people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetic foot ulcers usually occur on the bottom of the foot.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition where water in the body is improperly removed from the circulatory system by the kidneys. There are 2 forms of DI:
Retinopathy is damage to the thin layer of tissue in the back of the eye called the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is damage to the blood vessels in the retina caused by Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. There are 2 types of diabetic retinopathy:
Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma
Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma occurs in people with diabetes, usually type 2. It is a life-threatening event. Seek medical attention right away if you think you have any symptoms of an impending hyperosmolar nonketotic coma.
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